domenica 13 novembre 2011

Top Accounting Degree Programs: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (UIUC)

Detail of the General Ledger Report

The Detail of the General Ledger Report:
Your most valuable analytic tool

How in the world could anyone working in accounting get along without a Detail of the General Ledger report? That would be like working with your hands tied and your eyes blindfolded. Without this report you would have a very difficult time determining how a final balance in a particular account was derived. Here is why:

Picture this: Back in the not-to-distant past (before computers really caught on) we accountants recorded each transaction of the business manually into a great big hard-bound, three-leaf binder book with yellow pre-printed ledger pages. Obviously, this was a very time-consuming, tedious process. Each page not only recorded the numbers associated with the transaction, it also recorded where the numbers came from, the date, and, when appropriate, a very brief note to the side describing additional detail. Here is an example of a general ledger account page:

Account 1010 – Cash-in-Bank

12/31Balance Forward3,450.21
01/05General Journal pg 254.003,504.21
01/17General Journal pg 427.003,477.21
01/31Cash Receipts pg18,025.3411,502.55
01/31Cash Disbursements pg 47,945.873,556.68

Transactions may come from a variety of journals, but they all pyramid into the General Ledger. I use the word “pyramid” because it is helpful to visualize the shape of a pyramid with all the source documents spread out at the base. The information is being summarized from each document and “migrates” upward to the General Ledger and eventually to the financial statements, which are at the top of the pyramid:

Fin State
Trial Balance
General Ledger
Gen Jour, Cash Rec, Cash Disb, Acct Rec, Acct Pay
Sales Invoices, Purchase Invoices, Bank Rec, Check Register

If I wanted to find out how a particular balance came to be, all I had to do was look at the detail on the general ledger page. That detail would then tell me which source documents contained the numbers that contributed to the final balance. I did not have search all over kingdom come to find what I was looking for.

Nowadays, your computer accounting software should give you a report of the detail in your General Ledger that is laid out as cleanly and clearly as presented above. Just like you would find in a manual general ledger. The report should not be encumbered with all kinds of other information that makes it hard to decipher. Some software programs don’t call this report a Detail of the General Ledger, they call it a transaction report or something similar.

Furthermore, you should be able to print a report for any period your heart desires, for instance: a year-to-date report; from February to July; for just one month; or whatever. You need that flexibility. If you need to see all twelve months of activity for a particular account, then you need to see all twelve months. You should not have to print out each month separately and then manually piece them together. And, if you only need to look at one month, you don’t want to have to print out the entire year.

A good report will enable you to use it as an analytic tool to find mistakes. Let’s assume that after printing your financial statements you looked at the Cash-in-Bank account and it said the balance was $3,556.38. Being the good accountant that you are, you verified that balance with the bank reconciliation balance and found that it said the balance should be $3,583.38. The difference between the two totals is $27.00. Your first step should be to run a Detail of the General Ledger report for the month, which you do and it is our example above. The first thing you notice is a $27.00 credit entry. This is suspicious and worth investigating. You can see that this entry came from the General Journal so you turn to page 4. Let’s hypothesize and assume that you really meant for this credit entry to go to Employee Advance, which is 1110. You simply wrote the wrong GL Account number.

We used to call this procedure “smoking out the error”. Sometimes the errors are easy to find, sometimes not so easy. The process consists of verifying the final balances that are on the financial statements. What is in the General Ledger should be what is on the financial statements. Therefore, you must use another document as a means of verifying the account balance. In our example above, we used the Bank Reconciliation. Other documents used to verify balances could be the Accounts Payable Ledger, Accounts Receivable Ledger, Sales Tax Report, Payroll History Report, Inventory Control Report, Notes Payable Amortization Schedule, and so on.


Nessun commento:

Posta un commento